The Age of Science

Sir Christopher Wren (1632 – 1723)

Most people know Sir Christopher Wren as the Architect of St Paul’s Cathedral and several other churches and buildings built as a result of the devastation caused by the great fire of London.

He is also known to medical science and science in general, his friends included among others Sir Isaac Newton. 
In 1657, Christopher Wren injected opium into a dog’s vein, through a quill and thus invented intra venous injection. Sir Christopher Wren’s bizarre ideas were using ale, wine or opium as substitutes for blood.

This idea probably went down well with the drinking fraternity but for a scientist, there was not much science research done into the idea.
He was also a brilliant anatomical illustrator; he used his perspectograph an ingenious device that allows him to trace the lineaments of any object and was probably used to trace the topography of the brain, nerves and blood vessels. 241

He produced drawings for Thomas Willis's 1664 book Cerebri Anatome (The Anatomy of the Brain). This was a landmark publication in the history of neurology, not least because of Wren's detailed and accurate figures, which were among the very first modern images of brain anatomy.

Charles II (1630-1685)

Charles II returned from exile after the death of Oliver Cromwell and was restored to the throne of England in 1660, it was a different country that he fled during the civil war after his defeat at Worcester in 1651. He had to give way on several areas of responsibility and become a servant to democracy. When he returned however in that same year he not only raised the head of Cromwell but also raised the standing army and within that, a formal medical organisation within the army. 

The standing army has been in existence ever since. By appointing royalists like Wiseman and Knight as Surgeon Generals, he helped to finally give the profession the status it deserved. It was he who ordered the building of the Royal Hospital in Chelsea and Sir Christopher Wren was asked to design it.

King Charles also resurrected the practice of Kingly healing, it is said the King touched the victim and often also a gold coin  - usually an Angel, showing the Archangel Michael killing the dragon -  that was then worn around the victim's neck, and the person promptly recovered. He touched as many as 90,000 people during his twenty-year reign.

A prayer was said at the ceremony to invoke Gods mercy.

This was a great time for science as the great Sir Isaac Newton was revealing so much that the establishment did not understand. It is also true that he was a Christian and spent more time on the study of Daniel and Revelation than he did on science. His end of the world calculation was 2060.(

"O most merciful God, which according to the multitude of thy mercies, doest so put away the sins of those which truly repent, that thou remembrest them no more: open thy eye of mercy upon this thy servant, who most earnestly desireth pardon and forgiveness: Renew in him, most loving father, whatsoever hath been decayed by the fraud and malice of the devil, or by his own carnal will, and frailness: preserve and continue this sick member in the unity of thy Church, consider his contrition, accept his tears, assuage his pain, as shall be seen to thee most expedient for him." 242




Quote 54

“A time will come when men will stretch out their eyes. They should see planets like our Earth.”133


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Ken True History of Surgery and Anaesthesia