The Dark Ages
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razl (865–925)
Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi, known as Al-Razi, or Ar-Razi, or IbnZakaria (Zakariya) or (in Latin) as Rhazes and Rasis(8641-930 AD)
He was an Iranian polymath who contributed much to the fields of medicine and chemistry. He was born in Ray (Rages) (actually, in Persian language Razi means from the city of Ray) 82
Muslim physicians like Rhazes were researching into medical cures. Rhazes was one of the first to use animal gut as a material for an absorbable suture. He did perform surgery but was primarily a physician. The Islamic physicians were also known to use a soporific sponge (soaked in hashish or opium.) It would be moistened and held over the face inducing a State of sleep.
At this time the Jews of the world, who had been scattered by the Romans after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, were full of the knowledge of Christian and Muslim medicine. Most Jewish physicians were fluent in Arabic.
The Roman Catholic Church then forbade them to practice medicine, especially on Christians, this became punishable by death.
Rhazes major achievement was he was the first to identify the difference between measles and smallpox.
“The eruption of the smallpox is preceded by a continued fever, pain in the back, itching in the nose, and terrors in the sleep. These are the more peculiar symptoms to approach, especially a pain in the back with fever; then also a pricking which the patient feels all over his body; a fullness of the face, which at times comes and goes; an infectious colour, and vehement redness in both cheeks; a redness of both eyes, heaviness of the whole body; great uneasiness, the symptoms of which are stretching and yawning; pain in the throat and chest, with slight difficulty in breathing and cough; a dryness of breath, thick spittle and hoarseness of the voice; pain and heaviness of the in quietude, nausea and anxiety; (with this difference that the in quietude, nausea, and anxiety are more frequent in the measles than in the smallpox; while on the other hand, the pain in the back is more peculiar to the smallpox than to the measles) heat of the whole body; and an inflamed colon, and shining redness, especially an intense redness of the gums.” 83
"Except by the lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land." "To no man will we sell, or deny, or delay, right or justice." 84