The PioneersThe MilitaryReferences
  1. Severall Chirurgical Treatises By Wiseman, Richard, 1622-1676 London : Printed For Benj. Tooke, And Luke Meredith, Fleet-Street, MDCXCVI. [1696]     
  2. http://thinkexist.com/quotation/surgery_is_always_second_best-if_you_can_do/203294.html
  3. http://thinkexist.com/quotation/a-time-will-come-when-men-will-stretch-out-their/372659.html
  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_magnetism
  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthopedic_surgery
  6. James Moore (1762-1860): An 18th-Century Advocate of Mitigation of Pain during Surgery Norman Bergman MD 1994
  7. August Bier German Inventor and Anaesthetist.
  8. http://people.mech.kuleuven.be/~erik/local_heroes.html
  9. http://www.asa3.org/ASA/PSCF/1997/PSCF3-97Woodall.html
  10.  M. H. ARMSTRONG DAVISON Department of Anaesthetics Newcastle