Egyptian History

The Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers papyrus was found in Egypt in the 1870s, by the German Egyptologist George Ebers (1837-1898).

 The Ebers Papyrus is a huge roll of more than 20 meters long and 30 cm wide. It is mainly an internal medicine reference, as well as charting diseases of the eye, skin, extremities, and some surgical related conditions 43 Anatomical and physiological terminology is also included. For treatment of those diseases, 877 recipes and 400 drugs are described "

It also includes a surprisingly accurate description of the circulatory system, noting the existence of blood vessels throughout the body and the hearts function as a centre of the blood supply. It also refers to birth control, diabetes mellitus, trachoma, hookworm and filariasis, as well as forms of arthritis.

The papyrus also contains a short section on psychiatry. It describes a condition of severe despondency that is equivalent to our modern definition of depression.

It also outlines a vast array of remedies especially herbal.

Herbal Remedies Mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus

  • Acacia (acacia nilotica)- vermifuge, eases diarrhea and internal bleeding, also used to treat skin diseases.

  • Aloe vera - worms, relieves headaches, soothes chest pains, burns, ulcers and for skin disease and allergies.

  • Basil (ocimum basilicum)- excellent for heart.

  • Balsam Apple (malus sylvestris)or Apple of Jerusalem - laxative, skin allergies, soothes headaches, gums and teeth, for asthma, liver stimulant, weak digestion.

  • Bayberry(Myrica cerifera) - stops diarrhea, soothes ulcers, shrinks hemorrhoids, repels flies.

  • Belladonna - pain reliever;camphor tree - reduces fevers, soothes gums, soothes epilepsy.

  • Caraway (Carum carvi; Umbelliferae)- soothes flatulence, digestive, breath freshener.

  • Cardamom( Eletarria cardamomum; Zingiberacae)- Used as a spice in foods,digestive, soothes flatulence.

  • Colchicum (Citrullus colocynthis) - also known as "Meadow Saffron", soothes rheumatism, reduces swelling.

  • Common Juniper tree (Juniperis phonecia; Juniperus drupacea)- digestive, soothes chest pains, soothes stomach cramps.

  • Cubeb pepper (Piper cubeba; Piperaceae)- urinary tract infections, larynx and throat infections, gum ulcers and infections, soothes headaches.

  • Dill (Anethum graveolens)- soothes flatulence, relieves dyspepsia, laxative and diuretic properties.

  • Fenugreek(Trigonella foenum-graecum) - respiratory disorders, cleanses the stomach, calms the liver, soothes pancreas, reduces swelling.

  • Frankincense(Boswellia carterii) - throat and larynx infections, stops bleeding, cuts phlegm, asthma, stops vomiting.

  • Garlic (Allium sativa) - gives vitality, soothes flatulence and aids digestion, mild laxative, shrinks hemorrhoids, rids body of "spirits" (note, during the building of the Pyramids, the workers were given garlic daily to give them the vitality and strength to carry on and perform well).

  • Henna (Lawsonia inermis) - astringent, stops diarrhea, close open wounds (and used as a dye).

  • Honey was widely used, a natural antibiotic and used to dress wounds and as a base for healing unguants, as was castor oil, coriander,beer and other foods.

  • Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) - mild laxative, expels phlegm, soothes liver, pancreas and chest and respiratory problems.

  • Mustard (Sinapis alba) - induces vomiting, relieves chest pains.

  • Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) - stops diarrhea, relives headaches, soothes gums, toothaches and backaches.

  • Onion (Allium cepa) - diuretic, induces perspiration, prevents colds, soothes sciatica, relieves pains and other cardiovascular problems.

  • Parsley (Apium petroselinum) - diuretic.

  • Mint (Mentha piperita) - soothes flatulence, aids digestion, stops vomiting, breath freshener.

  • Sandalwood (Santallum album) - aids digestion, stops diarrhea, soothes headaches and gout (used, of course, in incense).

  • Sesame (Sesamum indicum)- soothes asthma.

  • Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)- laxative.

  • Thyme (Thymus/Thimbra) - pain reliever.

  • Tumeric (Curcumae longa) - closes open wounds (also was used to dye skin and cloth).

  • Poppy (papaver somniferum) - relieves insomnia, relieves headaches, anesthetic, soothes respiratory problems, deadens pain. (342)

Some believe the papyrus to be a copy of the even more ancient books of Thoth (3000BC), reputed father of medicine, pharmacy and alchemy. It is now in the University of Leipzig library. 44




It was widely believed in ancient times that the God Thoth invented the magical and hermetic arts, and thus the Tarot deck is frequently referred to as the "Book of Thoth" He was associated with the moon; as the sun vanished. This is why the images of the Tarot cards are familiar to his attributes. Thoth tried to dispel the darkness with his light, he was also a healer and mediator in wars.


Now this god was also known as the God of truth and time.


Knowledge is not necessarily wisdom.45