The Age of Science

Charles II (1630-1685)

Charles II returned from exile after the death of Oliver Cromwell and was restored to the throne of England in 1660, it was a different country that he fled during the civil war after his defeat at Worcester in 1651.

He had to give way on several areas of responsibility and become a servant to democracy. He however did have the heads of most who signed the death warrant on his father, digging up the body of Oliver Cromwell and decapitating it and hanging it on traitors gate..

When he returned however in that same year he not only raised the head of Cromwell but also raised the standing army and within that, a formal medical organisation within the army. 

The standing army has been in existence ever since. By appointing royalists like Wiseman and Knight as Surgeon Generals, he helped to finally give the profession the status it deserved. It was he who ordered the building of the Royal Hospital in Chelsea and Sir Christopher Wren was asked to design it.

King Charles also resurrected the practice of Kingly healing, it is said the King touched the victim and often also a gold coin  - usually an Angel, showing the Archangel Michael killing the dragon -  that was then worn around the victim's neck, and the person promptly recovered.

He touched as many as 90,000 people during his twenty-year reign.

A prayer was said at the ceremony to invoke Gods mercy.

This was a great time for science as the great Sir Isaac Newton was revealing so much that the establishment did not understand. It is also true of Newton, that he was a Christian and spent more time on the study of Daniel and Revelation than he did on science. His end of the world calculation was 2060 not too far away.

"O most merciful God, which according to the multitude of thy mercies, doest so put away the sins of those which truly repent, that thou remembrest them no more: open thy eye of mercy upon this thy servant, who most earnestly desireth pardon and forgiveness: Renew in him, most loving father, whatsoever hath been decayed by the fraud and malice of the devil, or by his own carnal will, and frailness: preserve and continue this sick member in the unity of thy Church, consider his contrition, accept his tears, assuage his pain, as shall be seen to thee most expedient for him."231


“There are three things in life that are certain, death, taxes and that its raining in Tavistock"

Charles II




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The History of Surgery and Anaesthesia was created as a free resource to educate Students or indeed anyone wishing to understand the beginings of surgery and Anaesthesia.

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